Once your adult leafcutter bees begin to hatch, the Backyard Pollinator will soon become the hardest working pollination system you have ever seen. When the buzz begins you will have no problem getting close to observe what those busy bees are up to.
Read these notes to discover what hardworking little bees they are. And BEE sure to share your newfound knowledge with your friends and family. They will BEE amazed too!
Native to SW Asia and NE Europe, this particular species of leafcutter bee (megachile rotundata) was introduced to North America in the 1930’s.
Farmers who went to Europe as soldiers in WWI took notice of alfalfa fields being pollinated by wild populations of leafcutter bees. This led to the semi-domestication of the species for commercial use in North America.
After hatching male and female leafcutter bees mate. The males have completed their purpose and die within a few days.
Each female bee performs many tasks such as locating a nesting site, cutting leaf material to create cells, gathering pollen and nectar and laying eggs.
Two types of leaf or flower materials are cut by female bees:
- oval and curved shapes to create cells;
- very round flat pieces to cap the tunnels.
As seen in the photo of the cut away styrofoam nest:
- cells have a lining of silky material that is shiny brown;
- the cells are different to the capping material at the entrance of the tunnel.
Cell material is stuck together with a glue-like secretion. In nature their cells can be found in plant stems or in wood with bored holes.
Man-made habitat is made of wood or styrofoam with many uniform holes for mechanized harvest.
Leaf cutter bees remain close to home collecting pollen and nectar within 100 metres or so of their nest. This makes them a popular addition to flower gardens and backyard spaces.
Pollen is carried on their hairy abdomen and then deposited inside the nesting holes. Small bits of pollen fall off these hairs as they forage among flowers resulting in effective cross pollination.
Leafcutter bees are very efficient pollinators of many varieties of flowers. They can forage on even the tiniest of flowers such as catmint or lavender.
In flower gardens rose bushes and pansies are readily cut for nesting material.
In a commercial setting leafcutter bees are used to pollinate alfalfa, carrots, other vegetables and some fruits like wild blueberries.
A tenfold increase in the pollination of alfalfa flowers is noticed when leafcutter bees are distributed into our fields.